Type 1 Diabetes
Short and Long-Acting Insulin Therapy
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Type 1 Diabetes, formerly known as “Juvenile Onset Diabetes,” is an autoimmune disorder that often develops at younger ages, however can occur at adulthood as well. It is believed that the immune system of the Type 1 Diabetic attacks the cells in the Pancreas called Beta Cells, which are responsible for producing insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream. Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes can include excessive hunger, thirst and urination, weight loss, blurred vision and tingling in the hands and feet. For people who do not have Diabetes, insulin is produced at a normal, constant levels on a consistent basis, with surges of extra insulin released after meals are ingested. Without the Beta Cells in the Pancreas producing insulin, there is no way for the blood glucose to be controlled in a Type 1 Diabetic without proper medical intervention. Uncontrolled Blood Glucose levels can be life-threatening and need to be managed as quickly as possible by a physician.
What is the ideal goal for proper medical treatment and management of Type 1 Diabetes? Research has proven that a combination of a diet that incorporates low-glycemic index foods, a regimen of long and short acting insulins given throughout the day, and strict monitoring of blood glucose levels gives the patient the best chance for preventing both elevated blood sugar levels and small and large blood vessel damage that can eventually affect the kidneys, eyes, cardiovascular system, nervous system and many other organs of the body.
What is the difference between short and long acing insulins? Short acting insulins are used prior to meals and have a quicker onset of action (from approximately 5 min to an hour), peak at 1-4 hours and last from 4-8 hours. These are usually injected 3-4 times per day by the patient. Some examples of short and rapid acting Insulins are Humalog, Novolog, Regular Insulin and Apidra. Long Acting Insulins peak at approximately 1 ½ to 2 hours and their effects last throughout the day from 12-24 hours. These are usually injected 1-2 times per day. Some examples of long acting insulins are Levemir and Lantus. Both types of insulin therapy (long and short acting) are necessary for the Type 1 Diabetic Patient to maintain steady-state glucose levels (primary job of long acting insulins) and prevent dangerous blood glucose spikes after meals (primary job of short/rapid acting insulins).
Over the years, the focus of Clinical Trials have been to determine the best regimen of insulins to treat Type 1 Diabetics. The short and long acting combinations above have proven in several studies to have the tightest control over blood glucose levels. Since this roadmap of treatment has been established, the focus now for Clinical Trials is the development of the different types of insulins that are superior to or at least comparable to their current counterparts on the market in order to give the patient the best options for treatment. One such trial available at Metabolic Research Institute.
Many research participants report that they enjoy taking an active part in clinical trials and appreciate having a dedicated research staff to monitor them. There is no cost to the participant to enroll. All medications, bloodwork, exams and other research-related procedures are provided by Metabolic Research Institute and the drug company that sponsors the trial. Participants will receive stipend for their time and travel. If you would like more information or want to schedule a screening appointment, please call us at 561-802-3060 and we would be happy to start you in the process.